We introduce a deep learning approach for denoising Monte Carlo-rendered images that produces high-quality results suitable for production. We train a convolutional neural network to learn the complex relationship between noisy and reference data across a large set of frames with varying distributed eects from the film Finding Dory (le). The trained network can then be applied to denoise new images from other films with significantly different style and content, such as Cars 3 (right), with production-quality results.
Regression-based algorithms have shown to be good at denoising Monte Carlo (MC) renderings by leveraging its inexpensive by-products (e.g., feature buffers). However, when using higher-order models to handle complex cases, these techniques often overt to noise in the input. For this reason, supervised learning methods have been proposed that train on a large collection of reference examples, but they use explicit filters that limit their denoising ability. To address these problems, we propose a novel, supervised learning approach that allows the filtering kernel to be more complex and general by leveraging a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture. In one embodiment of our framework, the CNN directly predicts the nal denoised pixel value as a highly non-linear combination of the input features. In a second approach, we introduce a novel, kernel-prediction network which uses the CNN to estimate the local weighting kernels used to compute each denoised pixel from its neighbors. We train and evaluate our networks on production data and observe improvements over state-of-the-art MC denoisers, showing that our methods generalize well to a variety of scenes. We conclude by analyzing various components of our architecture and identify areas of further research in deep learning for MC denoising.
Machine learning Monte Carlo denoising dataset. The dataset contains pairs of noisy renderings and references rendered with many samples. The scenes are random perturbations of creative commons scenes rendered using the Tungsten renderer.
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